June, 2016

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Ink Dating Experts

Ink Dating Experts Ink Dating analysis

Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper.

The static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases. Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used.

The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating. This primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing. Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these.

Speckin Forensics have the experts in ink dating to solve your case! Contact Speckin Forensics at www.4n6.com.

Computer and Cell Phone Forensics

computer cell phone forensics experts

During the last five years, there have been exponential advances in technology and with the advent of the Internet; computers have become pervasive in everyday life. As a result, digital data in some form or another will be critical to most types of civil litigation and criminal proceedings.
The tools for conducting forensic examinations have also rapidly evolved, expediting the ability for securing evidentiary images, guaranteeing the integrity of digital evidence, and reducing the time and resources necessary for conducting a comprehensive examination of electronic media.
There is a rapidly emerging trend to use computer forensics for a broad range of civil litigation matters involving intellectual property rights, trademark infringement, misuse and theft of trade secrets, patent and copyright violations, as well as more traditional matters such as employment law litigation and criminal fraud.

Contact Speckin Forensics for expert services and consult on cell phone and computer forensics at www.4n6.com.

Alterations, Additions & Rewritings of Medical and Business Records

Alterations, Additions & Rewritings of Medical and Business Records

Lawyers are interested in the forensic examination of disputed records for three main reasons: Case value, avoiding client perjury, and due diligence to the client. Many attorneys are aware that Forensic Document Examiners can determine the authenticity of a signature and do various examinations on typewriters (see below) and printed documents. However; many attorneys are not aware of examinations to detect additions, alterations, or rewritings.
Our laboratory can:
1. Detect an alteration made with a different pen, albeit a color matched ink.
2. Determine the age of a document.
3. Determine the age of a particular ink.
4. Determine when an ink was first commercially available.
5. Determine if additions, alterations, or rewritings of records have occurred, when it happened, who did it, and what pages were replaced.

In a case regarding the record tampering issue to be deemed significant, an addition to a record should have at least one of the following criteria:
1. The intentional concealment of a change that is not clearly noted but takes instrumentation to detect.
2. An addition or change to a critical entry.
3. An entry that was not made contemporaneously with the other entries with no notation of late charting.
4. A pattern of alterations to the critical entries.
5. Testimony is different than the forensic evidence present.
6. The whiting-out, scribbling out or obliteration of an entry.
7. The removal of pages from the records, or expanding the chart with pages created after the fact.

Additions that are made with a color matched ink can usually be detected by the use of an infra-red image converter or possibly an argon or krypton laser. The difference in the ink in this range of light is caused by the different excitation levels in the inks. If the inks are different, one ink may luminesce while the other will not and filters out. This can be captured photographically and makes an excellent court exhibit as shown in figures A through C below, or on closed circuit video.
This is especially important when the questioned entry is the lynch-pin entry in a case. Some signs to look for that may indicate record tampering: 1. Crowded entries. 2. Entries compressed around other entries. 3. Entries made in the margins or along the bottom of the page. 4. Slant, pressure, and uniformity of handwriting. 5. Relative length of questioned entries to other entries in the chart. 6. Unnatural spacing between entries. 7. Entries that shift the blame onto the patient such as pt. refused or non compliant. 8. Differences between what the client says and what the records indicate. 9. Strange notations such as complained of NO chest pain.
We also have the ability to chemically or optically remove obliterating inks, stamps, white out, or factors blocking the reading of a particular entry.

Speckin Forensics has the experts in computer and machine generated documents review and analysis!

Computer And Machine Generated Document Experts http://4n6.com/computer-and-machine-generated-documents/

Speckin Forensics has the experts in computer and machine generated documents review and analysis!

Through the use of instrumentation, we are able to detect additions to a typewritten document that were made in a different typing insertion at a subsequent time.

Contact us today at 4n6.com or call (888) 999-1009.

 

 

Ink Dating Experts

Ink Dating Experts Ink Dating analysis

Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper.

The static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases. Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used.

The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating. This primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing. Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these.

Speckin Forensics have the experts in ink dating to solve your case! Contact Speckin Forensics at www.4n6.com.